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Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Exploiting Open Lines.

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White to play

Imbalances :

  • White has more queenside space.
  • d6-pawn is attacked by a White Bishop on a3 and the c-file is a semi-open file. Can this semi-open file be exploited to gain the advantage.
  • On b-file White has already formed a battery. Can this Battery formation utilised to gain advantage.
  • c5-square is the best seat for the Black Knight on d7.
  • e5-d6-c7 is a best pawn chain for Black. It is a general principle that always attack at the base of the chain pawn. In this position c7 is the base pawn. Can we attack the base pawn to destroy the chian and  capture d6-pawn?












Middlegame strategy.

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                                        White to Play


1.         Black King cannot move to e-file because it is controlled by White Rook.

2.         g8 is also controlled by White Queen Prohibiting the Black Monarch to
            Move to g8 and f7 Square.

3.         White has excellent Bishop Pair The Bishop on h5 is indirectly controlling The f7 square.


            Can you deflect the Black Knight on g6 Square so that the Queen and Bishop
           will  Have a control over the f7-square.
















































(1)  11  h3  Qd6

(2)  11  Re1

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Middle game Strategy

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Black to play
Rowson, Nonathan --- Emms, Hohn  2008

1. Black King is safe.
2. White king has not yet been castled.

3. Black's e4 pawn is not sufficiently defended.
4. White's d4 pawn is undefended.
5. f4-square is weak and White may try to exploit it.
5. The game is in the transit mode of middle game.
5. Black will try to defend its e4 pawn or advance it to e3.

What should be the Black's strategy?

White's 11th  move was Bg2













Bg5!? (2)


e3?! (1)






Rxe2 (3)

(!)  11 ...Re8 Nf1 and now either Nf8 ( or to my mind more enticingly 12 ...c5!? since White has not time for the Positionally desirable 134 dxc5 Nxc5 14 Bg5 Nd3)

(2) 16 b3 Ne4  17 Bd2 avoiding simplification with chances to develop a serious initiative.

(3) 18  Bxf6  gxf6  19  b3  c6  20 Rxf6  Be6  21 Rf2  Re3  22 Rf3 ( Jonathan determinedly chases Black's most active piece in a bid to liquidate to pure structural advantage.

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1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. Nc3 e6 5. e3 Nbd7 6. Bd3 dxc4 7. Bxc4 b5 8. Bd3
Bb7 9. a3 b4 10. Ne4 a5 11. Nxf6+ Nxf6 12. e4 Be7 13. Qe2 Qb6 14. O-O c5 15.
axb4 $1 {Nicely timed. Black is all but forced to capture away from the centre
which adds great force to White's central breakthrough.} cxb4 (15... axb4 $6
16. Bb5+ $1 $16) 16. d5 exd5 ({The opening of the centre is clearly not
without its dangers, but I have to say I find the full horror of what was to
befall Black rather well disguised at this stage. In any case, ignoring
White's aggression was not really an option in view of} 16... O-O 17. d6 $1
Bxd6 $140 18. e5 Bxf3 19. gxf3 $16) 17. Be3 $1 Bc5 18. Bxc5 Qxc5 19. Rac1 Qb6
20. Bb5+ {...and finally this check is arranged in such a way as to ensure
that Black's king remains in the firing line.} Kf8 21. e5 Ne8 $6 {This knight
is heading for c7 in a bid to discourage White's intended blasting open of the
e-file.} ({The game itself delivers a severe judgement upon this project, and
therefore the arguably more natural alternative} 21... Ne4 $5 {should probably
have been preferred, although White's positional compensation after} 22. Rfd1 {
is substantial, reinforced by the fact that the most natural attempt to
re-connect the black rooks with} g6 $6 23. Nd4 Kg7 $6 {fails unequivocally to}
24. Qe3 $1 Qd8 25. f3 Ng5 26. e6 $1 {with decisive threats. At least here
White's king's rook is coaxed to the less threatening d-file!}) 22. Rfe1 Nc7
23. e6 $1 {Some of the ideas behind this excellent breakthrough not least the use of the e-file in
conjunction with the elegant 'clearance' of e5 for the white knight. However,
in contrast with most of the positions there the only modification of the pawn
structure is simply the loss of the e5-pawn. White is quite unphased by the
arrival of a black piece blocking the file. His strategy henceforth revolves
around undermining this knight and his methods are as instructive as they are
brutal.} Nxe6 24. Ne5 (24. Ng5 $5 {is also very strong, but the text has
undeniable aesthetic value in the context of our theme.}) 24... Kg8 25. Nxf7 $1
Kxf7 (25... Nd4 26. Qe7) 26. Rc6 $1 Qd8 27. Qxe6+ Kf8 28. Rd6 1-0

Sunday, August 28, 2011

Middle Game Strategy

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White is developed excellently and built up his attack in the
best possible way. Black has two which are not active in the game where as
white's rooks are active and are posted on the open or semi-open files. White
Bishop is excellently posted into the opponent's territory on g5. White has
also formed the battery on open d-file. Black has d7 and d6 weakness Black
should think of exploiting weak f7 square. b7 is also a weak pawn. Blakc's
queen is entered right into the White's territory and in many positions a
single avantgrade, here Queen, can disrupt the opponent's forces. Because
white cannot move with absolute freedom within his own territory, he will find
it more difficult to coordinate his attack. If we find attacking the d6 or
f6 suare the strategy will to develop the pieces accordingly.} 1. e5 {d6 pawn
cannot capture it since the Bishop behind it is not sufficiently guarded.} Qf5
2. Kb1 {This is the impressive move because it leaves the e-pawn hanging once
again. This move is called as Hector's homecooking because this most dangerous
move is not the computer move.} (2. exd6 Qxg5 3. Qxg5 Bh6 4. Qxh6 Rxh6 5. Bf3
b6 6. Rh4 Rc8 7. Kb1 Ne5 8. Bb7 Rc4 9. Nd4 g5) 2... d5 (2... Qxe5 3. Bxh5 Rxh5
4. Rxh5 gxh5

5. Re1 Qf5 6. Nd5 Be7 7. Nc7+ Kd8 8. Bxe7+ Kxc7 9. Qxd6+ Kc8 10.
Nc5 e5 11. Bf6 b6 12. Bxe5 Nxe5 13. Rxe5) 3. Rde1 {It is important to post the
Knight on the e4 square since it will control the two weakness of white viz d6
and f6. But there is one another interesting weakness in the Black's camp ie.
c7.} d4 {Its a grave mistake. Black should have done something to develop
the pieces.} 4. Nxd4 Nxd4 5. Qxd4 Qxg5 6. Ne4 Qd8 7. Bxh5 Bg7 8. Bxg6 Rxh1 9.
Rxh1 fxg6 10. Nd6+ 

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Inverted Opening

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1. d4 e6 2. c3 d5 3. Bf4 Nf6 4. e3 c5 {Here it is Black who is playing the
Queen's Gambit, while White is building up his position according to the
pattern which Black uses in the Semi-Slav Defence, to which the move Bf4 is a
useful addition. This is an example of a so-called inverted opening, in which
White plays Black's system with a tempo in hand.} 5. Bd3 Nc6 6. Nd2 Be7
{Black has obviously lost his bearings and is not aware that he is 'really
White'; passive moves of this type do not fit in with the active position of

his central pawns.} ({Correct was} 6... Bd6 {.}) 7. Ngf3 O-O 8. Ne5  Re8
{Black does not appreciate the real nature of the position and is not taking
measures to obtain counterplay at the right time by means of an outpost on one
of the central squares. He even surrenders control of the important e4 and e5
squares to White, and as a result suddenly comes up against the storm of an
attack on his castled king.} ({The correct course was} 8... cxd4 9. exd4 Nxe5
10. dxe5 Nd7 11. Qh5 f5 12. -- ({when Black cannot meet} 12. f3 {by} Qc7) {
and} 12... Nc5 13. Bc2 Ne4 }) 9. g4 {Throughout the opening stage of the
game the conditions required to justify a 'bayonet attack' have been gradually
accumulating. One group of these conditions has already been noted in the
shape of Black's inferior moves and his lack of concern to control at least
one of the important squares e5 and e4. The other group can be revealed by an
analysis of the structure of White's position. This is clearly distinguished
by good piece play together with a modest but sound pawn formation in the
centre. Indeed, its essence lies in the very soundness of the formation c3, d4,
and e3, with the strong protection which it gives to the square d4. If this
solidity in the centre did not exist, Black would be able at the last moment
to organize a counterattack in the centre as an answer to White's attack on
his castled king.    His security against such a central counterattack -
generally the main weapon in an active defence against an attack on the
castled king - gives White great freedom in his attack on the castled position
and is basically the main justification for the move 9 g4!.} Nxe5 ({If} 9...
Nd7 {White will continue with} 10. g5 {as in the game.}) 10. dxe5 Nd7 11. g5 
Nf8 ({If} 11... Bxg5 {, then} 12. Qh5 h6 13. Rg1 Bxf4 14. exf4 Kf8 15. Qg4 g6
16. Bxg6 {.}) ({If} 11... Qc7 {, then} 12. Bxh7+ Kxh7 13. Qh5+ Kg8 14. g6 fxg6
15. Qxg6 Rd8 ({or} 15... Rf8 16. Qxe6+ Rf7 17. Qxf7+ {and 18 e6+}) 16. Rg1 Bf8
17. Nf3 {followed by Ng5.}) 12. h4 Bd7 13. Qg4 Bc6 14. O-O-O b5 {This
simplifies White's task, though better moves would not help Black very much.}
15. h5 c4 16. Bxh7+  {No sooner has White's pawn avalanche established
itself on the fifth rank than he carries out the characteristic piece
sacrifice, which breaks up the castled position and prevents a defensive
blockade from being set up.} Nxh7 17. g6 Ng5 18. Ne4  Nxe4 19. gxf7+ Kxf7 20.
Qg6+ Kf8 ({His position also collapses after} 20... Kg8 21. h6 Bf8 22. Rdg1 Re7
23. Qh7+ (23. hxg7 {John Nunn:} Bxg7 24. Rh7 Qc7 25. Rgh1 {followed by mate.})
23... Kxh7 ({or} 23... Kf7 24. hxg7) 24. hxg7+ Kg8 25. Rh8+ Kf7 26. g8=Q+ {,
etc.  (Footnote: John Nunn  In fact, White ends up material down after} Ke8 27.
Qxf8+ Kd7 {, etc., so he should prefer 23 hxg7...followed by mate.)}) 21. h6
Bf6 22. hxg7+ Bxg7 23. Rh8+ Bxh8 24. Bh6+ Ke7 25. Qh7+ {and mate next move.}

Rook Endings Part 1.

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The Cut Off King Part 2

1. Rb1 {Black has connected passed pawns ready to convert it to Queen. Black
has Rook and a king. Black king is quiet away from its pawns. Strategy :
First try to hinder the mobility of one of the passed pawns with the help of
rook.} (1. Rd1 a2 2. Rd2+ Kh3 3. Rxb2 a1=Q 4. Re2 Qf1+ 5. Ke3 Kg4 6. Kd2 Qf4+
7. Re3 Qb4+ 8. Rc3 Kf4 9. Kc2 Ke4 10. Rh3 Qc4+ 11. Kb2 Qf1 12. Ra3 Qd1 13. Rh3
Kd5 14. Kc3 Qd4+ 15. Kc2 Qe4+ } 1. Re1 a2 2. Re2+ Kh3
3. Rxb2 a1=Q 4. Re2 Qf1+ 5. Ke3 Kg4 6. Kd2 Qf4+ 7. Re3 Qb4+ 8. Rc3 Kf4 9. Kc2
Ke4 10. Rh3 Qc4+ 11. Kb2) (1. Rf1 a2 2. Rf2+ Kh3 3. Rxb2 a1=Q 4. Re2
Qf1+ 5. Ke3 Kg4 6. Kd2 Qf4+ 7. Re3 Qb4+ 8. Rc3 Kf4 9. Kc2 Ke4 10. Rh3 Qc4+ 11.
Kb2) 1... a2 2. Rxb2+ Kh1 3. Rxa2 Kg1 4. Rd2 Kh1 5. Kg3 Kg1 6. Rd1#

1... b2 (1... c2 2. Rxb3+ Kd4 3. Rb4+ Kd3 4. Rb3+ Ke2 5. Rc3 Kd2 6. Rc8 c1=Q 7.
Rxc1 Kxc1 8. Ke5 Kd2 9. Kd5 Kd3 10. Ke5 Kd2) (1... Kd2 2. Rxb3 c2 3. Rb2 Kd3 4.
Rxc2 Kxc2 5. Ke5 Kd3 6. Kd5 Kd2 7. Ke5 Kd3) (1... Ke2 2. Rxb3 c2 3. Rc3 Kd2 4.
Rc8 c1=Q 5. Rxc1 Kxc1 6. Ke5 Kd2 7. Kd5 Kd3 8. Ke5 Kd2) 2. Ke5 Kf3 3. Kf5 Ke2
4. Ke4 Kd1 5. Kd4 c2 6. Rxb2 c1=Q 7. Rf2 Qa1+ 8. Ke4 Qb1+ 9. Ke5 Qb5+ 10. Kf4
Qb6 11. Kf3 Qc6+ 12. Kf4 Qb6

1... Rxh6 In this example the pawns are not connected but separated
(1... Kf1 2. Kf7 Rf2+ 3. Ke6 Re2+ 4. Kd6 Rd2+ 5. Kc5 Rc2+ 6. Kd4 Rc8
7. Ke5 Rh8 8. h7 Ke2 9. Kf6 Kd3 10. Kg7 Re8 11. Kf7 Rh8 12. Kg7) (1... Kh1 2.
Kf7 Rf2+ 3. Ke6 Re2+ 4. Kd6 Rd2+ 5. Ke5 Re2+ 6. Kf6 Rf2+ 7. Kg5 Rg2+ 8. Kf4 Rg8
9. h7 Rh8 10. Ke5 Kg2 11. Kf6 Kf3 12. Kg7 Re8 13. Kf7 Rh8 14. e8=Q Kf2 15. Qxh8
Kg2) (1... Kf2 2. Kd7 Rxh6 3. e8=Q Rh3 4. Qg6 Rg3 5. Qc2+ Ke3 6. Kd6 Rg4 7.
Qc5+ Kf3 8. Qf5+ Rf4 9. Qd3+ Kg2 10. Kd5 Kf2 11. Ke5 Rf3 12. Qc4 Re3+ 13. Kf4
Rf3+ 14. Ke4 Re3+ 15. Kd4 Rf3 16. Ke5) 2. Kd7 Rh7 3. Kd8 Rh8+ 4. Kd7 Kf2 5.
e8=Q Rxe8 6. Kxe8 Kg2 7. Kf7 Kf2 8. Kf6 Kg2 9. Kf7 

Rook Endings Part 1
Rook on the vulnerable square.

Rook endings Part 1.

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The Cut-off King.

{White wins easily, even though Black is to move and the white king is as
offside as possible.}  1... Kb6 (1... b4 2. Kg7 b3 3. Rh3 b2 4.
Rb3 {Black loses the pawn.}) 2. Kg7 Ka5 3. Kf6 Kb4 4. Ke5 Kc4 5. Rh4+ Kc5 6.
Ke4 Kc4 7. Rh8 b4 8. Rc8+ Kb5 9. Kd5 { If the defender's king is behind
his pawn, then the rook wins if it cuts off the king on its fourth rank}

1. Kb6
(1. Rf1 f3 2. Kb7 Kg3 3. Rg1+ Kh2 4. Rb1 Kg2 5. Kc7 f2 6. Kd6 f1=Q 7.
Rxf1 Kxf1 8. Ke7 Ke2)

(1. Rg1+ Kh3 2. Rf1 Kg3 3. Kb6 f3 4. Rg1+ Kh2 5. Rg7 f2
6. Rf7 Kg2 7. Rg7+ Kf3)

(1. Ra4 Kg3 2. Ra5 f3 3. Rg5+ Kh3 4. Rf5 Kg3 5. Kb7 f2
6. Kc7 Kg2 7. Rg5+ Kf3 8. Rf5+ Kg2)

1... Kf3 2. Kc5 Ke4 3. Kd6 f3 4. Rf1 Ke3 5.
Re1+ Kd2 6. Rb1 Ke3 7. Rb3+ Ke2 8. Ke5 

1. d7 {This will lead to draw, insufficient pieces.}
(1. Kd7 Kf6 2. Kc6 Ke6 3.d7 Ke7 4. d8=Q+ Kxd8 5. Kd6 Rf5 6. Ke6 )
1... Rg6+ 2. Ke7 Rg2 3. d8=Q Re2+
4. Kd7 Rd2+ 5. Ke8 Rxd8+ 6. Kxd8 Kf6 7. Kc7 Ke6 8. Kb6

Rook on the vulnerable Square.

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{White owns more queenside space thanks to his pawns on c4 and d5.  White
would like to add to his queenside gains by an eventual a2-a3 followed by
b3-b4 chasing the black Knight away from its excellent perch and preparing to
rip open lines in that area. Plus, this will open files for the Rooks.
Presently White's knights and Queen are eyeing the e4-square. If possible,
Black should avoid letting this important central square fall into enemy hands.}
1... gxf5 {It keeps the White pieces off of e4 since later on it will be
controlled a pawn.  Black's central pawns are more mobile. f5-f4 will handover
the e4-square to White.  e5-e4 will hand over the f4 square to White but the
h8-a1 diagonal will be open for the g7-Bishop.} (1... Rxf5 {This places the
Rook on a vulnerable square, gives White control over e4, and doesn't make any
particular gains.} 2. Bxc5 dxc5 3. Bg4 Rf8 4. Be6+ Kh8 5. Nde4 Qe7 6. Bxc8 Rxc8
) (1... Bxf5 {Here also white gains control over the e4-square.} 2. Nde4 Qh4 3.
Bxc5 dxc5 4. g3 Qh3 5. Qd2 b6 6. Ng5 Qh6 7. Ne6) 2. a4 f4 3. Bxc5 dxc5 4. Nde4
Bf5 5. f3 *

Friday, August 26, 2011

Common Patterns in Chess.

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Here I would like to give the most common patterns which occur most of the time. The study of such patterns would be helpful for the attacker as well as defender. These patterns usually occur with the slightest difference and the player has to apply his knowledge in that slightly changing scenario.

We observe that the common castling takes place on the short side. Therefore, the patterns occuring in the endgame after such castling is discussed here.

First Pattern

This pattern is called Archetypal position.

Normaly it is not so easy. The Archetypal Position always occur with other combinations and we will study such combinations.

In order to avoid mate by the excellent move by white Qxh7 Black will have to give up his Rook if Black has to play.

In the position given below We see the Black Queen is hanging. It has no support and vulnerable to attack by the Bishop on g1. Think How White will proceed to capture the opponent's Queen.

contd ......

More positions will be added.

Opposite Coloured Bishops.

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The guidelines.

Endings with opposite-coloured bishops are perhaps the most 'strategic' of them all. My studies

of these endings have taught me some rules which will help you get your bearings in nearly all such endings.

1.  Drawing Tendencies.

Here it is frequently possible to save oneself even two or three pawns down. The consequences of this rule are obvious : the stronger side must be exceptionally alert, whether going into an opposite-coloured bishops endgame, or playing one drawing out - here it doesn't take long to stumble on a drawing counterchance. And for the weaker side, going into the opposite-bishop ending is sometimes the key to his salvation, sharply increasing the chances for a favourable outcome.

2. The Fortress
The main theme of opposite - coloured bishop endings is that of the Fortress. The weaker side strives to create one, the stronger side strives to prevent its formation, or ( if it already exists ) to find a way to break through it.

An important factor in endgame play is the ability to analyze a position logically, to think through various plans and schemes. Logical thinking is of special importance in endings with opposite-coloured bishops. In importance in endings with opposite-coloured bishops. In the majority of cases, such endings are not "played" as much as they are " constructed" first it is necessary to determine the configuration of pawns and pieces which will render the position impenetrable; only then can we proceed with the calculation of variations which will prove whether or not we can attain the desired configuration, and whether it is imprenetrable in fact.
The following guidelines show the most important techniques for setting up and breaking down fortresses.

3. Pawn Placement.

In the preceding chapter, we considered the principle that required us to place our pawns on the opposite colour squares from that controlled by our bishop. In opposite-coloured bishop endings. this especially important with connected passed pawns.

But the weaker side must, contrary to the general rule, keep his pawns on the same colour squares as his own bishop - in that event, he will usually be able to defend them. In fact, a pawn defended by its bishop can only be attacked by the enemy king - which renders it invulnerable. In other types of endgames, such a pawn could be attacked,  not only by the king, but also by other pieces ( Such as a knight, or a bshop of the same colour)

4.  Positional Nuances are Worth more than material.

When we are playing an opposite-bishop ending, the number of pawns on the board frequently has les significance than a small alteration in the placement of pieces or pawns - even an apparently insignificant one.
Therefore, in opposite-coloured bishop endgames, we quite frequently encounter positional pawn sacrifices.
 5. The One diagonal Principe.
We have already met this principle in the Bishop vs Pawns" endgame. for both the stronger and the weaker side it is very important that the bishop should both defend its own and stop the enemy pawns "without tearing" - that is along one and the same diagonal.

6. Pawns in the "Crosshairs"

A typical means of defense is for the bishop to attack the enemy pawns. This will either force their advance, to the less favourable squares of the colour of their own bishop, or tie the enemy king to the pawns' defense.  
The logical thing would be to illustrate each of these rules by concrete examples. However, that would be difficult, only because they are rarely employed separately. Consider the following simple endgame, and you will see all of the rules we have been talking about, appearing simultaneously.

Saturday, August 20, 2011

Endgame Strategy 21.

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White to Play.

1 d6+!! exd6 ( Black can do know better if he moves his king, White cleans up with 2 d7 moves his king to f7 with appropriate timings and garner Black's pawn for an easy win.

2 Kd5! Kc8 (Trap)

3 Kc6!! ( Not 3 Kxd6? which draws after Kd8) Kd8

4. Kxd6 ( Now White has won the pawn while taking the opposition, and the latter makes all the difference) Ke8

5 e7 1-0

White to Play

If we look at the position we find the following imbalances,
1. White is a pawn ahead.
2. White has two protected passed pawns.
3. Black has a protected pawn.
4. White King is quiet a disatance away from its passed pawns and will not likely not be able to assist in their advance.
The denouncement rests on this last point.

1 Kd4  Kg4  2 h4  Kh4 ( So far, so good white has made a little progress)

3 Ke4  Kg4  Ke3  Kh5  5 Kf3 ( Triangulation forces king to give around while remaining in the c4 pawn's square) Kg6  6 g4  Kh6  7 h5  Kg5  8  Ke3  Kh6  9 Kf4  Kg7  10  g5 Kh7  11  g6+  Kh6  12 Ke3  Kg7
13  Ke4  Kh6  14  Kf4  Kg7  15  Kg5  c3  16  h6+  Kg8   17  Kf6  c2  18 h7+  Kh8  19  Kf7  c1  Q  20 g7 + Kxh7  21  g8 Q  Kh8  22 Qg6 # 1-0 

White to Play

This is a very important defensive tool. Sometimes the defender can find a stalemate defence in more complex positions.

1 Kg4 ( 1   gx f6?? gxf6  2  Kg4  Ke4  3 Kh5  Kxh5  4 Kh6  Kg4  5  Kxh7  Kh5! ) Ke4  2  g6!  h6  3  Kh5  Kxf5  Statemate. 1/2 - 1/2

Dear Readers Its for You.

White to Play

Comment your answers.