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Friday, December 2, 2011

Modern Chess and Its development.

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The pawns are the soul of chess, creating conditions for both attack and defence; the win or the loss of a game depends on the good or bad position of the pawns. disturbed even his contemporaries.

Philidor was of the opinion that one should be like a skilled worker while handling pawns development. He even given importance and priority to the development of pawns than the development of pieces. Adolf Anderson preferred gambits such as Evans Gambit and the King's Gambit which he made emenently respectable. In these openings White offers material to gain time and space. Even pawn sacrifices to help the coordination of pieces were much more soundly based in Anderssens games. Paul Morphy gave importance to the strategic principles of the open game especially gambit openings. He adopted a style in which pieces are developed by opening files and diagonals. Mikhail Ivanovich took the open game to its highest point of perfection. Chigorin contributed a great deal to the theory of certain gambits such as Evans gambit, Kings gambit. He developed new ideas for Black's defence to the Ruy Lopez and these forms the basis of a number of well nown defensive systems. In England chess took another direction, with Howard Staunton as the leading exponent of the English style. Staunton's main concern was to obtain a sound position, and he was content with slight advantage. The development of modern chess strategy begins with the work of Wilhelm Steinitz (1836-1900) For thirty years hes was considered the strongest player in the world. His work began an era in which chess became a scientific game. He was a great subscriber of the Italian school of thought. Later on he started finding new paths. Lasker summerized his views as,
1. There is an 'equilibrium of position'.
2. Sharp attacks can only be attempted when this equilibrium is disturbed, never before.
3. It is fundamental that attacks must only be aimed at the 'weak points' in the enemy position.
4. The defence must be conducted with the utmost economy of means and must not tie down pieces

 He also signified the inportance of the following points.

1.     Weak points
2.     Doubled and isolated pawns,
3.     Explained the value of the Queen side pawn majority.
4.    The superiority of the Bishop pair in open positions.
5.     Pawns protecting the castled king are best at their original position.
6.    He stressed the nedd for a  blocked centre when attacking on the wing. Opening theory was
       enriched by many of his ideas. There are some weaknesses in Steniz's theory but the vast
       contribution he made to the game of chess made him as the founder of modern chess theory. Steniz's successor Dr Siegbert Tarrasch (1862-1934) detailed the chess principles in his books Die Moderne Schachpartie ( Modern Chess) and Dreihumdert Schachpartien ( 300 games of chess ) Emanual Lasker (1868-1941) extended the principles of steintiz giveing a precision. Tarrach's fundamental ideas about 'economy' in chess thinkign, and simplification of all problems which occur in a game, were borught to the highest peak of perfection by the Fosi Raul Capablanca (1888-1942). Richard Reti, Aron Nimzowitsch and Saviely tartakower, the hypermoderns, took as their starting point the teachings of Steinitz which they supplemented by several important strategic principles an above all by a new concept of the struggle for the centre. They demonstrated that the pawn centre is not always necessarily advantageous and may even present a serious weakness if immobile and exposed to flank attacks.

In his book 'My System' Nimzowitsch explained further strategic ideas concerned with the ,

1.   Blockade
2.   Pawn chain and the manoeuvre.

Hypermoderns gave new life to the development of the game. Later on some of their priciples led them into adopting many bizarre, unnatural and disadvantageous set ups, resulting in unpleasant defeats.

Dr. Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946) made a deep and thorough study of the teachings of Steinitz and revealed an accomplished playing technique along with an outstanding positional insight.

There are contributions by different chess players and genius till Robert Fischer. The chess player should have a knowledge of all these theories and study the contribution to the development of modern chess.