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Saturday, April 28, 2012

Chess Strategy

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In this combination Black has a rook for a knight and should therefore win, unless White is able to obtai some compensatio immediately. White in fact mates in a few movees, thus,

1. Nf6+   gxf6   ( Forced otherwise Qxh7 mate)

2. Qg3+   Kh8   Bxf6# Mate  1-0

A very frequent type of combination is shown in the following position.Here White is the exchange and a pawn behind, but he can win quickly thus: 1.Bxh7+ Kxh7 [if 1...Kh8 2.Qh5 g6 3.Qh6 and wins] 2.Qh5+ Kg8 3.Ng5 , and Black cannot stop mate at h7 except by sacrificing the queen by 3...Qe4 , which would leave White with a queen for a rook. +-

This same type of combination is seen in a more complicated form in the following position.White proceeds as follows: 1.Nxe7+ (this clears the line for the bishop) 1...Bxe7 (to stop the knight from moving to g5 after the sacrifice of the bishop) 2.Rxe7 Nxe7 (best) 3.Bxh7+ Kxh7 [if 3...Kh8 4.Qh5 g6 5.Bxg6+ Kg7 6.Qh7+ Kf6 7.g5+ Ke6 8.Bxf7+ Rxf7 9.Qe4# mate] 4.Qh5+ Kg8 5.Ng5 Rc8 6.Qh7+ Kf8 7.Qh8+ Ng8 8.Nh7+ Ke7 9.Re1+ Kd8 10.Qxg8# mate.This combination is rather long and has many variations, therefore a beginner will hardly be able to fathom it; but knowing the type of combination he might under similar circumstances undertake and carry out a brilliant attack which he would otherwise never think of. It will be seen that all the combinations shown have for a foundation the proper coordination of the pieces, which have all been brought to bear against a weak point. 1–0

In this position White's best line of defence consists in keeping his pawn where it stands at h2. As soon as the pawn is advanced it becomes easier for Black to win. On the other hand, Black's plan to win (supposing that White does not advance his pawn) may be divided into three parts. The first part will be to get his king to h3, at the same time keeping intact the position of his pawns. (This is all important, since in order to win the game it is essential at the end that Black may be able to advance his rearmost pawn one or two squares according to the position of the white king.) 1.Kg3 Ke3 2.Kg2 [If 2.Kg4 Kf2 3.h4 g6 will win.] 2...Kf4 3.Kf2 Kg4 4.Kg2 Kh4 5.Kg1 Kh3 The first part has been completed.The second part will be short and will consist in advancing the h-pawn up to the king. 6.Kh1 h5 7.Kg1 h4 This ends the second part.The third part will consist in timing the advance of the g-pawn so as to play ... g3 when the white king is at h1. It now becomes evident how necessary it is to be able to move the g-pawn either one or two squares according to the position of the white king, as indicated previously. In this case, as it is White's move, the pawn will be advanced two squares since the white king will be in the corner, but if it were now Black's move the g-pawn should only be advanced one square since the white king is at g1. 8.Kh1 g5 9.Kg1 g4 10.Kh1 g3 11.hxg3 [If 11.Kg1 g2 .] 11...hxg3 12.Kg1 g2 13.Kf2 Kh2 and wins.It is in this analytical way that the student should try to learn. He will thus train his mind to follow a logical sequence in reasoning out any position. This example is excellent training, since it is easy to divide it into three stages and to explain the main point of each part. –+

                                                         Which pawn is first to queen?
In this position whoever moves first wins.The first thing is to find out, by counting, whether the opposing king can be in time to stop the passed pawn from queening. When, as in this case, it cannot be done, the point is to count which pawn comes in first. In this case the time is the same, but the pawn that reaches the eighth square first and becomes a queen is in a position to capture the adversary's queen when he makes one. Thus: 1.a4 h5 2.a5 h4 3.b6 axb6 Now comes a little calculation.Therefore instead of taking he plays: 4.a6 [White can capture the pawn 4.axb6 , but if he does so he will not when queening command the square where Black will also queen his pawn: 4...h3 5.b7 h2 6.b8Q h1Q] 4...h3 5.a7 h2 6.a8Q and wins. +-

                                                                               The opposition
Suppose in the above position White plays 1.Kd4 Now black has the option of...opposing the passage of the white king by playing 1...Kd6 ...Notice that the kings are directly opposed to each other, and the number of intervening squares between them is odd - one in this case.[or, if he prefers he can 'pass' with his own king by replying 1...Kf5 .] =


The above position shows to advantage the enormous value of the opposition. The position is very simple. Very little is left on the board, and the position, to a beginner, probably looks absolutely even. It is not the case, however. Whoever has the move wins. Notice that the kings are directly in front of one another, and that the number of intervening squares are even. Now as to the procedure to win such a position. The proper way to begin is to move straight up. Thus: 1.Ke2 Ke7 [The process has been comparatively simple in the variation given (below), but Black has other lines of defence more difficult to overcome. Let us begin anew. 1...Kd8 Now in order to win the white king must advance. There is only one...square where he can go, 2.Kf3 , and that is the right place. (Now if 2.Kd3 Kd7; or if 2.Ke3 Ke7 , and Black obtains the opposition in both cases. (When the kings are directly in front of one another, and the number of intervening squares between the kings is odd, the player who has moved last has the opposition.)) Therefore it is seen that in such cases, when the opponent makes a so-called waiting move, you must advance, leaving a rank or free file between the kings. Therefore we have: 2...Ke7 Now it would be bad to advance, because then Black, by bringing up his king in front of your king, would obtain the opposition. It is White's turn to play a similar move to Black's first, viz: 3.Ke3 which brings the position back to the first variation shown.] 2.Ke3 Ke6 3.Ke4 Kf6 Now White can exercise the option of either playing 4.Kf4 and preventing the black king from passing, thereby keeping the opposition...White takes (this) course... [or, of playing 4.Kd5 and thus passing with his king. Mere counting will show that (this) course will only lead to a draw...] 4...Kg6 [If 4...Ke6 5.Kg5 will win.] 5.Ke5 Kg7 Now by counting it will be seen that White wins by capturing Black's b-pawn. The student would do well to familiarise himself with the handling of the king in all examples of opposition. It often means the winning or losing of a game. +-


The above position is an excellent proof of the value of the opposition as a means of defence. White is a pawn behind and apparently lost, yet he can manage a draw as follows: 1.Kh1! The position of the pawns does not permit White to draw by means of the actual or close opposition, hence he takes the distant opposition: [in effect if 1.Kf1 (actual or close opposition) 1...Kd2 2.Kf2 Kd3 and White cannot continue to keep the lateral opposition essential to his safety, because of his own pawn at f3.] On the other hand, after the text move, if 1...Kd2 [Going back to the original position, if 1 Kh1 1...g4 White plays: 2.Kg2 (White does not play 2.fxg4 because 2...e4 will win) 2...Kd2 (If 2...gxf3+ 3.Kxf3 followed by Ke4 will draw.) 3.fxg4 e4 and mere counting will show that both sides queen, drawing the game.] 2.Kh2 Kd3 3.Kh3! Ke2 4.Kg2 Ke3 5.Kg3 Kd4 6.Kg4 attacking the pawn and forcing Black to play 6...Ke3 when he can go back to 7.Kg3 as already shown, and always keep the opposition.If the student will now take the trouble to go back to the examples of king and pawns which I have given in this book (see Section 3), he will realise that in all of them the matter of the opposition is of paramount importance; as in fact it is in nearly all king and pawn endings, except in such cases where the pawn position in itself ensures the win. =

                                                                        The opposition